more complicated than Orwell’s relationshipnto his experiences at the BBCnand that the inside jokes about the BBCnmay actually form only one of the morenshallow layers of that multilayerednwork. For in relation to the larger issuesnwhich Britain and the rest of the worldnoutside the BBC faced in the 1940’s,nWest does see Nineteen Eighty-Four fornwhat it certainly is—a bitter assault, byna man of the left, on left-wing totalitarianismnand antihumanism.nThere is more to come from WilliamnWest on Orwell, both as editor of thennew Orwell material and as a literarynand political commentator on Orwellnhimself Orwell’s lost writings are andisappointment so far—they will be ofnlimited interest even to Orwell scholarsn—but Wesfs introduction, at least, isnworth the read. We await the publicationsnof his other rediscovered Orwellnmaterial with anticipation. ccnArthur Eckstein is professor of historynat the University of Maryland.nBest-Sellers &nBrown-Baggersnby Andrei NavrozovnMary Biingle: Hacks at Lunch: AnNovel of the Literary Life; St. Martin’snPress; New York; $11.95.nIt is tempting to say that Mary Bringle’snHacks at Lunch was written by a hackn—at lunch or otherwise engaged. Butnso laconic a pronouncement wouldnleave the reviewer open to charges ofndisingenuousness and flippancy; and,nsince some such judgment cannot bensubstantively avoided, it must be elucidatednand qualified.nThe premise of this “novel of thenliterary life,” as Miss Bringle’s book isnsubtitled, is that “hacks” (i.e., “professionalnwriters” who produce, usuallynpseudonymously, pulp novels of mystery,nromance, and adventure) deservenour pity because they cannot belong tonthat other world, at once glamorous andnserious, where authors sign their booksnwith their real names and get reviewednby the New York Times. As may benexpected. Miss Bringle’s method echoesnHugo’s Les Miserables, and as the personalities,nor souls, of the four “hacks”nin her tale are revealed through theirnlunchtime words and thoughts, the authornwishes to lead us through pity tonpathos.nIt is not to be. Miss Bringle’s pathos isnfalse because the magical, highbrownworld in which her subjects want tonpartake is her own dream as well. Itsngoodness is axiomatic; and literature,nlike life, abhors the axiom (as did Hugo,nfor that matter). We do not pity then”hacks,” whose “literary life” the subtitlenmocks, so much as the author,nwhose literary and social aspirations, ornperhaps delusions, the novel unwittinglyndiscloses. Obviously, it has nevernoccurred to Miss Bringle that the differencenbetween “pulp” as defined by herncharacters and “literature” as defined bynthe New Yor^ Times may be not one ofntalent but of vocabulary, and one won­nders if her mind could accept the propositionnthat a writer of genuine sensibilitynmay find the very prospect of publication,nin the existing literary climate,nrepugnant, quite apart from EmilynDickinson’s interdiction concerningnpublication in general as “the Auction /nOf the Mind of Man.”nLiterature—not highbrow drivel ornlowbrow pulp—is largely a matter ofnunderstanding. Like the translator of antext, a writer who sets out to describe anworld must be moved by his talent tonunderstand it. If he does, he can expressnhimself in sign language if necessary; ifnThree Outstanding New BooksnTHE RATZINGER REPORTnAn Exclusive Interview On tlie State of the ChurchnJoseph Cardinal Ratzinger with Vittorio MessorinIn this controversial, highly publicized interview, Cardinal Ratzingernspeaks candidly and forcefully about the state of the Church in thenpost-Vatican II era. Ratzinger’s forthright, measured criticism ofncertain forms of liberation theology, and his removal of thenimprimatur from two widely read books in the U.S., are wellnknown. In this extensive, wide-ranging interview, Cardinal Ratzingernaddresses a variety of critical issues in the Church, making clearnwhat he thinks the problems are—and their solutions.n”It must be clearly stated that a real reform of the Churchnpresupposes an unequivocal turning away from the erroneousnpaths whose catastrophic consequences are already incontestable”.nSewn soft-cover, $9.95 — Joseph Cardinal RatzingernA CHESTERTON ANTHOLOGYnEdited by P. J. KavanaghnG. K. Chesterton is one of the most widely quoted 20th centurynwriters. His influence has been enormous, and this volume spearheadsnthe great revival of interest in Chesterton’s works. Thisnsubstantial work shows the many sides of Chesterton’s mind. Wenare given a wide variety of highly readable and enjoyable selechonsnfrom his novels, essays, poetry, and apologehcs. The best summarynof Chesterton available.n”This deserves to become the standard introduction tonChesterton.” —London Times Sewn hardcover, $19.95nCOLLECTED WORKS OF G. K. CHESTERTONnVol. I: Orthodoxy, Heretics, Biatchford ControversiesnThis first volume of Chesterton’s writings contains three of hisnmost influenhal and engaging works.n”Chesterton’s writings are so rich in good sense, in wit, and innplain, profound and cheerful truth that almost every page deservesna review to itself.”— The SpectatornSewn soft-cover, $12.95; Sewn Hardcover, $17.95nC.K. CHESTERTONnC O L I. C C r £ D WORKSnS^nlarjatlCIS P R e S S J'”” ‘^990 San Frandsco, CA 94118n<-J ^^mrrc r^ ^,T- ,- AMOUNTnCOPIES TITLEnNamenStreetnCitv State Zip RnPlease include $1.50 for postage and handling. (California residents please add bVi^ sales tax.)nnnAPRIL 1986/43n