the second lowest quartile in English and vocabulary, in thernlowest ten percent in quantitative analysis, and in the lowestrnthird on his advanced test in philosophy—the very subject hernwould concentrate in at B. U. Instead, King was recommendedrnbecause he socialized well with white students, had wonrnwhite support and approval, could be of “useful service” inrnthe future, and, so far from displaying any of those “annoyingrnqualities” that other Negroes exhibited (whatever this means),rnhad even showed a disdain toward Negroes of a lower socioeconomicrnorder. It was clearly on the basis of race, not scholarship,rnthat Professor Enslin recommended King for doctoralrnstudies.rnThe possibility that King benefited from an early form ofrnaffirmative action—from a lowering of academic standardsrnor from preferential treatment because of his race—rngains credence when his years of plagiarizing are considered.rnThough the editors treat this issue as gingerly as possible,rntheir volume clearly proves that King was an inveterate plagiaristrnwho began pilfering at an early age. The speech herngave in an oratorical contest at the age of 15 is not only, as therneditors say, “more polished than other pieces that King wroternas a teenager,” it is more polished than anything King “wrote”rnas an adult in either college or seminary. The editors concludernthat the “essay probably benefited from adult editing andrnfrom King’s awareness of similar orations.” Put more bluntly,rnthe speech was either written by an adult or copped from anrnunknown source.rnThe evidence of King’s pilferage is overwhelming. The editorsrndo not highlight the stolen sections but simply reprint inrnfootnotes without editorial comment the original passagesrnKing plagiarized, making the footnotes in this volume often asrnlong and tedious as the documents themselves. Sample one ofrnthe many “borrowed” passages in King’s essay on “Ritual,”rnwritten as a junior or senior at Morehouse College:rnKing:rnAll feasts are divided intorntwo classes, feasts of preceptrnand feasts of devotion.rnThe feasts of precept arernholydays [sic] on which thernFaithful in most Catholicrncountries refrain from unnecessaryrnservile labor andrnattend Mass. These includernall the Sundays in the year,rnChristmas Day, therncircumcism Isic] . . .rnPlagiarized source:rnAll feasts are divided intorntwo classes, feasts of preceptrnand feasts of devotion.rnThe former arernholy days on which thernFaithful in most Catholicrncountries refrain from unnecessaryrnservile labour andrnattend Mass. These includernall the Sundays in the year,rnChristmas Day, thernCircumcision . . .rnFrom King’s essay on “The Significant Contributions ofrnJeremiah to Religious Thought,” written during his first termrnat Crozer:rngion. It was a nationalrninstitution, linked intimatelyrnwith the fortunes of thernrace. In the course ofrnyears elaboraternceremonies werernenacted, and thernpriests prescribed sacrifices,rnand the smoke of burnt-offeringsrnrose high from thernaltar. The Temple was thernapple of the people’s eye.rnTo criticise [sic] it was to setrnaflame the fires of both religionrnand patriotism. Andrnthis was the very thingrnthat Jeremiah did.rngion. . . . It was a nationalrninstitution, linked intimatelyrnwith the fortunes of thernrace. . . . In the course ofrncenturies an elaborate liturgicalrnceremony came to bernenacted there, and thernpriests prescribed sacrifices,rnand the smoke of burnt-offeringsrnrose high from thernaltar The Temple was thernapple of the people’s eye.rnTo touch it was to setrnaflame the fires of both religionrnand patriotism. Andrnthis was just the very thingrnthat the prophet did.rnKing’s plagiarisms are easy to detect because their style risesrnabove the level of his pedestrian student prose. In general,rnif the sentences are eloquent, witty, insightful, or pithy, orrncontain allusions, analogies, metaphors, or similes, it is safernto assume that the section has been purloined. “To set aflamernthe fires of both religion and patriotism,” “It was the eye ofrnYahweh that was forever searching the thoughts and intents ofrnthe heart,” “Evil is the Satan that laughs at logic,” “Religionrn[is] the response of the heart to the voice of God”—all arernflags of King’s “textual appropriations.”rnIn fact. King’s plagiarisms grow more sweeping with eachrnyear he progresses in higher education. For instance, in hisrnessay on “A Study of Mithraism,” which he “composed” duringrnhis second year at Crozer, King lifts verbatim entire paragraphsrnfrom Franz Cumont’s well-known The Mysteries ofMithra andrnW. R. Halliday’s The Pagan Background of Early Christianity.rnAlso evident in this essay is King’s “composition method” ofrnplagiarizing himself, meaning his recycling into “new” essaysrnhuge sections verbatim of compositions he had written in previousrnyears for other classes.rnBut these examples from King’s eady terms at Crozer pale inrncomparison to the thefts committed during his final two years,rnand in particular to the papers King composed for ProfessorrnGeorge Washington Davis. Carson and company see nothingrnunusual in the fact that King took nine courses from this professor,rnbecause “so theologically compatible were King andrnDavis” and because King “forged his own theological perspective”rnin Davis’s courses, for which “King’s essays for Davisrndisplayed a greater degree of intellectual engagement” thanrnthose he had written for other Crozer professors.rnIf what the editors say is true, King’s compositions for ProfessorrnDavis should be the best argued, best written, mostrnerudite and original of all his essays. The evidence suggestsrnotherwise. From the introduction to King’s “The Sources ofrnFundamentalism”:rnKing:rnThis Temple was thernpivot of the nation’s reli-rnPlagiarized source:rn[This Temple] was the .rnpivot of the nation’s reli-rnKing:rnIn the course of its developmentrnwestern civilizationrnhas shifted from a colonialrnnaivete of the frontier to thernPlagiarized source:rnIn the course of its developmentrnwestern civilizationrnhas shifted from a colonialrnnaivete of the frontier to thern28/CHRONICLESrnrnrn