40 / CHRONICLESnBut salary is only part of it. Anothernsource of income, sometimes evennlarger than salary, is what a winningncoach receives from doing his ownnweekly television show during the season.nAdditional revenue comes fromncommercials or even a radio show.nAnd there are paid appearances tonspeak to this gathering or that. Onennationally prominent coach now receivesn$15,000 for a public speech.nMoreover, a winning coach gets quietntips about good investments, and henmay be invited to sit on boards ofndirectors, for which he will be wellnpaid.nBut for each good job, there arenBoys Will Be BoysnMen are made, not born. Thatnmuch seems clear from a host ofnstudies on adolescence in differentncultures. The American middleclassnmale has a hard enough timengroping toward manhood in theninstitutionalized and sanitized environmentnof high school and college.nIt is hard to imagine what itnmust be like for children in urbannslums. But, whatever our sympathiesnfor the lower classes—blacksnin particular—middle-class Americansnare increasingly facing the factnthat by and large such people arenthe crime problem. In the 60’s wenexperimented with bribing thenlower orders into acquiescence,nthrough a variety of poverty programsnand community empowermentnprograms. Few worked. Onenreason is suggested by Communitiesnand Crimes, a remarkably solid volumenedited by Albert J. Reiss Jr.nand Michael Tonry (Chicago: Universitynof Chicago Press; $27.50):nCommunities may be more thannaggregates of individuals; in somencases they are the social context ofncriminal behavior.nResearch on communities andncrime is problematic, as AlbertnReiss makes clear in an exhaustivenintroductory article, partly becausenof the ways in which governmentnagencies collect their data: By aimingnat a broad representative sam-nhundreds of coaches not doing so well.nIn fact, there are few top jobs inncoaching. Oklahoma only has two ornthree and Texas five or six good jobsn—but there are literally thousands ofnaspiring high school coaches in thenregion. The competition for one of thenbest jobs, when at last one comesnopen, is intense, especially when younconsider that there are hundreds ofnout-of-state applicants.nFor 40 years and more I have seennthis spectacle unfold each autumn innthe Southwest. I have watched withncompassionate sorrow as elementarynschool youngsters of littie talent arenostracized. I have observed with fasci­nREVISIONSnpie, the FBI obscures the complexitynof local variations in crimenpatterns. Still, as Leo Schuermannand Solomon Kobrin point out,nthere is a life cycle for communitiesnembarking on criminal careers:n”Among the changes signallingnneighborhood deterioration and risingncrime rates were a shift fromnsingle- to multiple-family dwellings,na rise in residential mobility,nunrelated individuals and brokennfamilies, the ratio of children tonadults, minority group populations,nfemales in the labor force.”nOf all the variables, the one thatnleaps off the page is broken families.nRobert J. Sampson, in a comprehensivenand incisive article, suggestsna direct relationship betweennmarital disruption (i.e., divorce),nand the rates of robbery and homicide.nWhatever positive features divorcenoffers for whites, intact familiesnserve as deterrents to crime notnonly within their own householdnbut also upon the entire neighborhood:n”In areas with a cohesivenfamily structure, parents often takenon responsibility for their own childrennand for other youth also.”nWhat is more, even the best singleparentnhousehold cannot make thensame contribution to communityncontrol as an intact family, for thensimple reason that only one parent,ntypically a working mother, is unablento supervise leisure activities.nIf family dissolution and neigh­nnnnation as otherwise sane adults gonberserk at high school games. And Inhave been at endless faculty gatheringsnwhere the entire world of athletics wasntreated with contempt.nYet on an autumn afternoon, asncool winds blow from the north, turningnleaves golden, please. Lord, let menhave seats on the 50-yard line whennthey tee up the football for the Texas-nOklahoma game at the Cotton Bowl innDallas.nOdie Faulk is author of Arizona: AnShort History (University of OklahomanPress) and of other standard volumesnof Southwestern history.nborhood disintegration are thenproblem, then some form of communitynempowerment ought to benpart of the solution. However,nRichard M. McGahey reveals thatnsuch programs typically runnaground on the rock of politics:nLocal officials do not enjoy surrenderingnpower to ordinary peoplenand generally succeed in co-optingnor subverting community actionnplans. Short of rebuilding a shatteredncommunity—a near-impossibility,nit would seem—Sampsonnpoints to one method that doesnwork: Police harassment/policen”aggressiveness,” e.g., frequentnsearches and interrogations of disorderlynor otherwise suspicious persons,nmay “send a signal to potentialnoffenders that one’s chances ofngetting caught are higher than theynactually are.” Harassment seems tonwork particularly well in reducingnthe number of robberies committednby black adult males.nIn the good old days of Chicagonand New York, punks with strangenhairdos, walking down the streetnwith their “ghetto-blasters” raging,nwould have been taken into an alleynand beaten by the first cop theynencountered. If he knew the neighborhood,nhe would have also complainednto their mothers and, perhaps,nthe local priest or minister.nNow, it turns out, the uniformedngorillas were right all along. What ansurprise.n