provided in life, despite communistnexpertise at moral assassinations as welln(one of them wrote of him after he leftnBulgaria: “We hope that in the West theynknow how to bury dogs”). Though thencommunists may be blind to moralnnobility, they harbor a lurking fear that anmoment may come when the festivencrowds in the Sofia streets chanting theirnwell-worn slogans will be transformedninto a cleansing force moved by moralnindignation and understanding, asnhappened however briefly in Hungary inn1956, Czechoslovakia in 1968, or Polandnin 1980-81. The ways of mass nationalnpsychology are mysterious, but there arenmoments when the power of moral examplenalone can move an entire peoplen—not for long, perhaps, but longnenough.nThe communist recognition of thenforce of leadership, including moralnleadership, almost surely lies behind thenunsuccessfiil attempt to assassinate JohnnPaul II in May of 1981. The men in thenKremlin had seen the Pope’s “divisions”nwhen he visited Poland; they knew henwas intimately involved with the rise ofnthe Solidarity movement, which threatenednthe foundations of communist rulenin Poland and perhaps elsewhere innEastern Europe; and they realized that henwas restoring the Church in the FreenWorld as well. Under the circumstancesn(since they see themselves as engaged inna war with the Free World in any case)nthey had no objection in principle to annattempt on the Pope’s life. Their onlynconcern was that they should not seemnto bear responsibility for it.nIn The Time of the Assassins ClairenSterling traces Mehmet Ali Agca’s careernthrough many thickets, including hisninvolvement with mostly rightist Turkishnterrorist groups; his connectionsnwith a Bulgarian firm which apparentlynspecializes in smuggling drugs to thenWest and arms into Turkey to all factionsnin order to destabilize that society asnmuch as possible; his evidently wellfinancednwanderings through Europe;nhis links with Bulgarian ofl&cials in Italy,nsome of whom abruptly returned tonl^wmmmmmmmmmmmnChronicles of CulturenBulgaria once a genuine investigationnbegan. Only very recently, three fullnyears after the event, have indictmentsnbeen handed down by the carefiil Italiannauthorities against certain individuals,nincluding Bulgarians, alleged to havenbeen involved in the conspiracy.nA tenacious investigative journalist.nSterling has shaped a great amount ofnmaterial into a case which anyone whonreads the record objectively cannscarcely refute, although in such annextensive investigation there are inevitablynerrors of detail, and the book couldnassuredly have profited from the effortsnof a good editor in organization and thenelimination of repetitions which sometimesnbecome irritating. But it is clearnthat the Soviets had a strong interest inneliminating the Pope, and that thenBulgarian intelligence service—whichnthe So Viet Union wholly controls in suchnmatters and which had extensive con­ntacts with the Turkish Mafia—^painstakinglynprepared Agca as a hired assassinnwhom it might, in feet, have decided tonuse against Lech Walesa. Instead itndirected him against the Pope, evidentlyncalculating on eliminating the assassinnafter the assassination. But the plot didnnot succeed, and after an interval ofnabout a year Agca realized what hadnhappened to him and provided his interrogatorsnwith specific information aboutnit.nMore interesting than the conspiracynitself, and certainly of more importancenfor world af&trs, is the West’s reaction tonthe very notion that the Soviets mightnhave organized a scheme to murder thenPope. The first inclination of Westernnofficials—^as in the case of the Kennedynassassination—was to deny that therenhad been any plot at all, to assert that itnwas all the doing of a single “knownncrazy.” When the Italian investigator.nIn the forthcoming issue of Chronicles of CulturenChurch ± Staten”Indirccth, the products of American muss ctiltiirc alsonsupport denigration of the I’.S. more at the cuktiral thannpolitical leel. ‘niey look at Dtilkis and their heart swells.’ saidnan linglish intellectual, commenting on the kind of confirmationnsuch programs pro idc of the stereotyped. negatie ievvsnof life in the I’nited States. A leader of the CND told me that onnhis visit to the I’.S. he was surprised at the vehemence ofncriticism directed at American policies from the pulpits of thenchurches in this countrx.”n—from “European Anti-Americanism: NothingnNewon the Western Front”nby Paul HollandernOpinions & Views—Commendable^—^Waste of MoneynIn Focus—The American Proscenium—JournalismnNotables—Screen—Liberal Culturennn