over the nearly two hundred nations one notes a negative correlationrnbetween fertility rate and prosperity: rich nationsrnhave lower fertility than poor ones. Such a correlation is consistentrnwith both of two hypotheses: either high fertility causesrnpoverty or prosperity causes low fertility.rnLogically, these contradictory hypotheses are equally defensible.rnThey are not, however, equally “acceptable” to mostrnkindhearted people. For more than 40 years the second onerndominated public discussion. Why? Because it leads to thernconclusion that we should be able to get poor countries tornlower their birthrates by “throwing money at them,” a conclusionrnthat leads to employment for professional philanthropists.rn”Foreign aid” also brings profits to the American entrepreneursrnwhose exports are bought with our tax funds.rnIf, on the other hand, high fertility causes poverty, we havernto tackle the problem of persuading poor people to changerntheir “family values.” This is difficult. That’s why popularrnopinion, for nearly half a century, favored the idea that the humanrnspecies, unique among the millions of species of animals,rnirrationally maximizes its fertility when attempting to escapernhard times. Since 1975 real population professionalsrnhave abandoned the error. (The press has not yet caught uprnwith reality.) Demographers now admit that the immediaterneffect of making poor people suddenly richer—^better fed andrnmore optimistic—is to increase their fertility.rnNevertheless, a last-ditch counterargument has surfaced.rnIt is claimed that the immediate effect of greater income—rnfertility enhancement—will wear off in a generation or two.rnMaybe so; but in two generations high fertility can do a lot ofrndamage to a poor country. At the present rate of growthrnworld population could more than double in two generations.rn(How would you like to drive your little car around a Bostonrnthat has twice as many people in it? If things keep going thernway they are now, you soon will.)rnThe bottom line is this: the days are over when in-migrationrncould be defended as a solution to any national problem.rnJapan has known this all along. From a narrowly nationalrnpoint of view, emigration—out-migration—may be a solutionrnof sorts to national problems. But immigration harms thernreceiving nation directly and the source nation indirectly becausernit weakens the motivation to solve problems on thernhome front. Australia and the European countries are nowrnpainfully recognizing the perils of immigration. To become rationalrnabout immigration Americans need to disown the appallingrnadvice of Emma Lazarus. The philosopher AlfredrnNorth Whitehead once remarked that “through and throughrnthe world is infected with quantity. To talk sense, is to talk inrnquantities.” Traditional ethics is right when it says that werncan, and should, be our “brother’s keeper.” But so massivernand uncontrolled is the growth of poor populations that it isrnliterally beyond our means to be our “brothers’ keeper.”rnWhile apostrophe “s” defines a possible virtue, “s” apostrophernis an impossible one. Quantities are important. Numbersrnmatter. Ethics must become numerate, quantitative.rnI don’t want to get you in trouble with your friends, Dinah,rnbut you might just float a few of these balloons overrntheir heads. Tell them that you “know an old codger outrnWest who says”—then mention one of these points. But distancernyourself from the argument: there’s no reason for you torntake the heat. Let me know their replies; they should be interesting.rnCaesarrnby Richard Moorern(A poUtical history of civilization in 18 trimeters)rnMoney’s in charge, rules all.rnThat order’s a mite tall.rn”Down with the powers above!”rnwe cried, “Kill hate; learn love.rnLet the land’s wealth increasernand bring our souls release.”rnThus money rules a whilerntill Caesar in his guilernrises from wars we madernpursuing love and tradernand demonstrates what is:rndirectly harnessesrnthe people’s love and haternto earth’s power, the State.rnThe people cheer, fulfill him,rnrising as one, and kill him.rnRome’s borders spread, then, vastrnin emptiness at last.rn18/CHRONICLESrnrnrn