faith. As the North increasingh’ drifted from the Bible, thernSouth was becoming the “Bible Belt.”rnAs the 19th century began, the South was one of the mostrn”unchurched” regions of the country. By the 1830’s, however,rnit had become a hotbed of evangelicalism. Historians haverncalled this revival the “Second Great Awakening.” Most of thernattention has focused on the Northern side of this “Awakening,”rnpartiy because it is far more interesting than what occurred inrnthe South, hi the North (and in some sections of the upperrnSouth), the Awakening was dominated by heterodoxy, fanaticism,rnand extravagant emotionalism. The Awakening had allrnthe hallmarks of bedlam, complete with weeping, wailing, andrnthe gnashing of teeth. The Awakening in the South, however,rnhad a decidedly different character.rnCharles Finney’s brand of revivalism, which swept the Northrnlike wildfire, never resonated in the South. The SouthernrnChristian leaders (Daniel Baker, ].H. Thornwell, B.M. Palmer,rnR.L. Dabney, John fiolt Rice, Thomas Peck, and Moses Drun-rnHoge, among others) vigorously opposed Finney’s theology asrnwell as his “innovations,” preenting the South from being corruptedrnby the fanaticism that dominated the revival in thernNorth and West. Following the classic “Reformed faith,” thesernmen believed that true revivals were God-sent, not man-produced,rnas Finney and his followers insisted. Revivals could notrnbe planned, nor could they be prolonged by artificial means.rnThey were a gift of God.rnThe attempt to contrast these ievs is not mere theologicalrnnit-picking. Finney’s revivalism focused on man’s abilihtornmanipulate God and thus produce reform by his own efforts.rnSouthern Christians, however, insisted that man was utterly dependentrnupon God and that nothing could be accomplishedrnapart from His blessing. These two perspectives would bear differentrnfruit: Dependence upon God and strict adherence to Hisrnwill, as set forth in His Word, became the hallmark of SouthernrnChristianity; political coercion in the name of God increasinglyrncharacterized Northern Christianity.rnThe predominant view in the South was that the Bible is therninfallible, inspired, inerrant, and authoritative Word of God.rnThe content of the sermons was overwhelmingly biblical.rnSouthern ministers spent their energies on explaining and applyingrnthe truths of the Scriptures: the sovereignty of God, therndepravity of man, the divine election of grace, the atoning deathrnof Christ, the call to repentance and justification by faith.rnThus, in the South, the preaching of the Word was viewed asrnthe chief means God uses to change the hearts of men. The primaryrninstruments of reform, therefore, were not political or socialrnmovements but the truths of God faithfully proclaimed tornthe consciences of men. Reform always begins within man byrnthe grace of God, not from without by legislative coercion orrnmilitary force.rnIn accordance with the old orthodoxy. Christian Southernersrnbelieved that God was sovereign: He alone can be tiusted withrnunlimited authority since He is spotiessly holy, just, and good.rnThey believed, therefore, that, if society was to prosper, all humanrninstitutions (family, church, and state) must abide withinrnthe strict limits that God had outlined for each in the Bible.rnIt is only within God Himself that we find the solution to thernancient question of the one and the many: God is both One andrnT’hree; both unit}- and diversit}’ reside equally in Him. Christianrnculhires, reflecting this truth, have always had a place forrnboth “oneness” (unity, structure, form) and “manyness” (individualismrnand diversity). Only in the Triune God and in HisrnCovenant can we have unity that does not annihilate legitimaternANNOUNCING THE 2001rnPHILLIPS FOUNDATION JOURNALISM FELLOWSHIPSrn• WORKING JOURNALISTS ELIGIBLE FOR $50,000 •rnI f you are a working print journalist with less than five years of professional experience, a unique opportunityrnawaits — the chance to apply for a grant to complete a one-year project of your choosing, focusing on journalism supportivernof American culture and a free society.rnJTounded in 1990, the Phillips Foundation is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to advance the cause of objectivernjournalism. The Foundation’s fellowship program serves to provide support for journalists who share thernFoundation’s mission: to advance constitutional principles, a democratic society and a vibrant fi-ee enterprise system.rn1 he Phillips Foundation offers $50,000 full-time and $25,000 part-time journalism fellowships. Applications are nowrnbeing accepted for 2001. Applications must be postmarked by March 1,2001. The winners will be announced at an awardsrndinner in Washington in the Spring. The fellowships will begin on September 1,2001. Applicants must be U.S. citizens.rnFor applications and more information, visit our website or write:rnMr. John FarleyrnTHE PHILLIPS FOUNDATIONrn7811 Montrose Road, Potomac, Maryland 20854rnTelephone (301) 340-2100rnE-mail: [email protected]://www.thephillipsfoimdation.orgrnDeadline: March I, 2001rn20/CHRONICLESrnrnrn