separated from the trail to Oregon. Half of the Bidwell partyrndecided to stay with Fitzpatrick and head for Oregon.rnThe remaining members of the Bidwell party were determinedrnto strike for their original destination, California. Fitzpatrickrndrew them a map and off they went, 31 men, one woman,rnand an infant girl. They did not reach the Sierra Nevadarnuntil the end of October. Through the towering granite rangernthey struggled, praying that a heavy snowfall would not leavernthem trapped. They climbed rocky passes, trudged over snowfields,rndescended into narrow canyons, and crossed and recrossedrnboulder-strewn streams. They ran out of food and suppliesrnbut not courage. Onward they staggered until the SanrnJoaquin Valley came into view. They were the first party ofrnAmerican pioneer settlers to reach California. Nancy Kelseyrnwas one of them. She had crossed the Sierra Nevada and shernhad done it barefoot and carrying her baby. Her shoes had longrnsince disintegrated. She went on to have nine more childrenrnand live into the 20th century.rnIf Nancy Kelsey displayed courage and rawhide toughness inrncrossing the Sierra Nevada, so, too, did James Reed, Jr. He wasrnfive years old when he accomplished the feat. His family wasrnpart of the ill-fated Donner party, trapped in the Sierra duringrnthe winter of 1846-47. He was deemed strong enough to attemptrnto hike out of the mountains with a relief expedition thatrnarrived in February. As he climbed upward in the deep snowrnfrom Truckee Lake toward the summit of the Sierra Nevada,rnhe spoke of his father, who was already across the mountains organizingrnanother relief expedition. It seemed impossible thatrnthe young lad, having eaten little or no food for several weeks,rncould continue, but he repeated to himself, “Each step bringsrnme nigher Pa.” Several others died, but Jimmy Reed survived.rnLike Nancy Kelsey, he lived into the 20th century.rnSix-year-old Johnny McGuire had absorbed the principles ofrnthe tribe. His family operated a way station at the southern endrnof the Owens Valley in California during the early 1860’s.rnWhile his father was away, a band of Paiute warriors attackedrnthe station. Johnny and his mother, Mary, put up a furiousrnfight but were forced into the open when the Paiutes succeededrnin setting fire to the McGuire’s cabin. Two cowboys spottedrnthe smoke rising from the cabin and galloped to the station.rnThey found Mary McGuire riddled with 14 arrows and nearrndeath. Beside her lay Johnny, dead. He had been struck by sixrnarrows, his arm broken, his teeth pounded out, and his headrnbashed in. Mary McGuire, wounded though she was, hadrnsomehow managed to pull every arrow out of her son. Theyrnhad both gone down fighting—an ax was found alongside herrnbody, and Johnny had a rock tightly clenched in his fist, indicatingrnthat, as a resident of the Owens Valley said in a newspaperrnreport, the boy “died grit.” The Home Guard, a militiarncompany of settlers, was in the field by the next day. The militiamenrntrailed the Paiutes for three days and then surprisedrnthem at a camp on the eastern shore of Owens Lake. Thirtyfivernof the Indians were killed, including two warriors shot byrnJohnny’s father.rnThe principles of the tribe changed little throughout thern19th century, although advancing technology causedrnsome variations on the old themes. The formal duel of the firstrnhalf of the 19th century was generally replaced by the gunfightrnfollowing the introduction of the revolver. As a result, gunfightsrnoccurred with great frequency, especially in the miningrncamps of the Far West. No mining camp gunfighter was deadlierrnthan John Daly. Born in New York City, he came to Californiarnas a teenager and began his gunfighting career in therncamps of the Mother Lode during the 1850’s. In 1863, he wasrnhired by the Pond mining company in Aurora, Nevada. ThernPond was waging a legal battle with the Real Del Monte miningrncompany over conflicting claims on Last Chance Hill. Legalrnexpenses would run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars.rnOutside of court, the Pond and Real Del Monte wouldrnspend thousands more on hired guns. Daly and his “boys”rnwere hired to oppose the hired guns of the Del Monte and tornintimidate the rival mining company’s executives and witnesses.rnDaly’s first gunfight in Aurora was with another hired gun,rnGeorge Lloyd. A Saturday night found the two of them in P.J.rnMcMahan’s Exchange saloon. A few words passed betweenrnthem, and they went for their guns. A split second later bothrnmen were firing. Daly was unhit, but Lloyd slumped to the saloon’srnfloor, dead. Daly had, by most counts, killed his 11thrnman. The townsfolk of Aurora were unmoved by the death ofrnA ndrew Jackson would havernchosen death before dishonor.rnHe was the symbol of his age.rnAnd the symbol of our age—rnBill Clinton?rnLloyd and by the deaths of other gunfighters. “So long as theyrndid not molest peaceable citizens,” commented one of therntown’s newspapers some months later, “their shooting and killingrnone another was borne with by the people with utter indifference.”rnA month later, the Pond and Del Monte trial was moved tornCarson City. There, John Daly ran into an old rival, JoernMcGee, in the St. Nicholas saloon. McGee had killed severalrnmen in gunfights, including two of Daly’s friends. NowrnMcGee and Daly went at it. Shots rang out, and McGee tumbledrnto the floor, dead. McGee was number 12 for Daly. Thernnext month, the Pond and Del Monte trial ended in a hung jury,rnand the two mining companies settled out of court ratherrnthan go to trial again. The services of Daly and his boys werernno longer needed, and they returned to Aurora. Daly reckonedrnthat there was still one outstanding debt to settle before hernmoved on to other towns and new adventures. William Johnson,rnwho ran a way station on the road between Aurora andrnCarson City, had been indirectly responsible for the death ofrnone of Daly’s gang members. Daly decided Johnson shouldrndie. Coincidentally, none other than Johnson himself arrivedrnat Aurora to sell a load of potatoes that he had grown at his wayrnstation. After making the sale, Johnson lingered in town to enjoyrnthe night life. Daly, accompanied by three of his boys, interceptedrnJohnson and put a bullet in his brain. To make certainrnJohnson was dead, one of Daly’s boys cut Johnson’s throat.rnThe next morning, Johnson’s body was discovered. The residentsrnof Aurora were furious. Two men—be they profession-rnJUNE 1999/15rnrnrn