less, Thurow analyzes problems of energy,ninflation, slow economic growth,nenvironmental problems, rules andnregulations, and income redistributionnin a basic and straightforward mannernwith which most economists would findnlittle to quibble.nMore fundamentally, though, Thurownis introducing some new thoughtsnon these problems—or rather on thensolutions for these problems. He recognizesnthat the standard economic answersnsuch as eliminating the minimumnwage to reduce unemployment simplynwill not be effective because it is anzero-sum transaction. That is, the realnproblem is the zero-sum nature of thensolutions. And it is with that problemnthat Thurow wrestles.nJL he Zero-Sum Society offers somenspecific actions which we could take tonget out of the zero-sum box. It is unfortunatenthat those actions apparentlyninvolve government to an even greaternextent in our economic system. Thatnseems to be analogous to pouring gasolinenon a fire to put it out. While Thurow’snanalytical structure is essentiallynsound, and while he is to be applaudednfor attempting some serious solutionsnto our problems, his solutions are unnecessarilyncomplex and use the wrongninstrument—that is, government—tonlever us out of the difficulties in whichnwe find ourselves. There is no questionnthat if we eliminated many of the policiesnthat generate our problems, some peoplenand some businesses would sufferneconomic losses. Thurow seems to thinknthat those individuals who do incurnlosses will have to be compensated ifnwe are to get off dead center. I suspectnthat there are other possibilities. Innfact, the first portion of Dr. Thurow’snbook does offer another kind of answer.nOur government is, for all its shortcomings,nstill responsive to the will ofnthe electorate. As voters become informednabout the causes of our problems,nthey will press for workable solutionsnregardless of the costs imposednupon certain individuals. After all, thosen22inChronicles of Culturenindividuals have had their time in thensun, have had their economic^ gains atnthe expense of everyone else. A case innpoint is the deregulation of the airlinenindustry. The airlines dragged theirnheels and fought deregulation becausenthey knew it would mean that theynwould have to compete with each othernfor the consumer’s dollar. Still, the de­nDesperation Transformedninto TranscendencenArna Bonteinps—Langston Hughes:nLetters 1925-1967; Edited bynCharles H. Nichols; Dodd, Mead &nCo.; New York.nby Allan C. BrownfeldnArna Bontemps and LangstonnHughes were born in 1902, became acquaintednin 1924 and continued theirnfriendship until Hughes’s death in 1967.nAbout their correspondence Bontempsnwrote: “All told I am convinced we haventhe fullest documentation of the Afro-nAmerican experience in the new world,nartistic, intellectual, covering the mid-n20th century, one is likely to find anywhere.nThe immediate response of twonwriters to events and conditions thatntouched their careers.” The editor ofnthese letters, Professor Charles H.nNichols of Brown University, notes:n”What stands out in their correspondencenis the firmness of their commitmentnto African and Afro-Americannculture . . . This sense of mission obsessednthem both and drew them into anlasting bond of mutual interests andndeep affection.”nBoth children of the black middlenclass, Hughes and Bontemps sufferednwhat W.E.B. Du Bois referred to asn”this double consciousness, this sensenof always looking at oneself through thenMr. Brownfeld is on the staff of lnconnReview.nnnregulation was effected and the competitionnin the industry has been a welcomenchange. If the solution of “get the governmentnout” can be effected in suchnan industry, it can surely be appliednelsewhere. That is not to say it will beneasy to do, but Dr. Thurow’s booknmoves us a step closer to the day whennit will be done. Dneyes of others, of measuring one’s soulnby the tape of a world that looks innamused contempt and pity …” Bontempsnhimself observed: “In their opposingnattitudes toward their roots . . .nevery educated American Negro mustnsomehow take sides.”nHughes and Bontemps were sons ofnmen who were disdainful of the blacknfolk heritage—its music, literature andnart. Bontemps was sent to a whitenboarding school during his high-schoolnyears and his father advised him, “Nowndon’t go up there acting colored.” LangstonnHughes’s father, a lawyer, acquirednproperty and status in Mexico and hopednhis son would turn his back on thenUnited States entirely. Instead, bothnmen embraced the black past and soughtnto create from it a literature of memorynand of hope for the future. Hughesnwrote in 1926: “We younger Negronartists who write now intend to expressnour individual dark skinned selves withoutnfear or shame. If white people arenpleased, we are glad. K they are not, itndoesn’t matter. We know we are beautiful.nAnd ugly too. The tom-tom criesnand the tom-tom laughs. If colored peoplenare pleased we are glad. If not, theirndispleasure doesn’t matter either. Wenbuild our temples for tomorrow, strongnas we know how, and we stand on topnof the mountain free within ourselves.”nThey wrote novels, plays, songs andnpoems as well as a vast body of journalism.nBontemps wrote Drums at Dusk,n