81 CHRONICLESnPERSPECTIVEnDIPLOMATS, DUPES, AND TRAITORSnby Thomas FlemingnElection ’88 has been so far a political flea circus innwhich the issues are as microscopic as the candidates.nThe one interesting candidate has been the Rev. JessenJackson. If you have seen his very effective commercials, younwill remember the pictures of Jackson meeting with PresidentnAssad of Syria, and the voice-over reminding us that ofnall the candidates Jackson is the only one who has carriednout top-level discussions with foreign heads of state.nJesse Jackson is hardly alone in playing the role ofnambassador to the world. There are many others: Dr.nBernard Lown, for example. In 1985 Dr. Lown, along withnDr. Yevgeny Chazov of the Soviet Union, received a NobelnPeace Prize for their efforts on behalf of nuclear disarmament.nChazov and Lown were co-founders of InternationalnPhysicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (or IPPNW).nDr. Chazov was equally well-known in the West for signingna statement that bitterly attacked Andrei Sakharov, thenNobel prize-winning nuclear physicist. Sakharov at that timenwas in forced internal exile and, by all accounts, was beingnheld in a hospital and undergoing a compulsory treatment ofnpsychotropic drugs.nnnCritics of IPPNW like Edward Lozansky have made thenobvious objection to their struggle for world peace: “There’sna fundamental link,” says Lozansky, “between preservationnof world peace and human rights. . . . Only when Sovietnpeople like Sakharov have the opportunity to speak free cannwe talk about trust, about stopping the arms race, aboutnnuclear disarmament.”nOne citizen diplomat who has earned the trust of Sovietnleaders is Armand Hammer. Hammer was the feature of anrecent Soviet television show, entitled Comrade Capitalist,nthat honors him for a lifetime of service to the USSR.nHammer claims to be on friendly terms with most of thenworld’s leaders and carries messages back and forth betweennPresident Reagan and Secretary Gorbachev. Jesse Jackson isna comparative newcomer to citizen diplomacy, but Hammernhas been at it since 1921, when he cut his first deal with thenUSSR—he still treasures his personally autographed picturenof Lenin.nIt is hard to tell where Hammer stands politically. As anvery rich capitalist he supported Richard Nixon to the pointnof making an illegal contribution to his campaign, but he hasnnever repudiated his father’s activities in support of thenCommunist Party. More than one liberal publication —nHarper’s and The New York Times, for example — haven