his strictures certainly do not justify ourrngiving way to Nietzschean despair.rnBy the end of his book, Gottfriedrnseems to mean by “neoconservatives”rnall optimists who call themselvesrnconservative: if so, count me in. Earlierrnon, however, he suggests a better definition:rnneoconservatives are conservativesrnwho “remain qualified defenders of thernwelfare state” and who support a “visionrnof a global democratic order.” I suggestrnan operating definition of a true conservativernas one who rejects the welfare staternby supporting local and private institutionsrnand judges foreign policy byrnwhether it meets American interests—rnand of a ncoconservative as a person whornrejects only the excesses of the welfarernstate and argues for a makc-thc-worldsafe-rnfor-democracy internationalism. Itrnseems to me that from this distinctionrnthree things follow.rnThe first is that the John RandolphrnClub “agreements,” as reported in ThernConservative Movement, will not do.rn”On immigration and trade policy, [libertariansrnand traditionalists] have unitedrnbehind the principle that no policyrnshould be adopted unless conducive tornpolitical liberty in the United States.”rnThis is simple evasion: unless policies regardingrntrade and immigration are goingrnto be made by local governments, whatrnother than the welfare state can executernthem in their increasing complexity? Ifrnfusionism’s simple formula of “libertarianrnmeans applied by a conservative societyrnfor traditional ends” is to be replaced,rnmuch more theoretical work is required.rnThe second is that a former ncoconservativernwho accepts conservatism, howeverrndefined, should be regarded by hisrnnew associates as a “real” conservative:rn”ncoconservative” cannot become a permanentrncastigation. In Gottfried’s earlyrnchapters, Irving Kristol is excused fromrnthe internationalist charge. lie quotesrnRussell Kirk’s opinion that Kristol is “notrna ncoconservative at all… but a conservative.”rnHe speaks favorably of Kristol,rnMidge Decter, and Gertrude Himmelfarbrnwhen discussing their views on socialrnissues. Yet, by the closing polemicalrnchapter, all arc back in the ncoconservativerncage, along with almost everybodyrnelse.rnKristol supports one of my two postulatedrnconservative tenets, yet is only arnqualified supporter of the second (althoughrnwith less qualifications everyrntime I read him). What to do? Excommunicaternhim for ideological incompleteness?rnWhich brings me to pointrnthree: if people (including neoconservatives)rntend in our direction, by all meansrnlet us welcome them and try to movernthem the rest of the way. I just cannotrnaccept that neoconservatives move conservativesrnleftward.rnContrast the pessimism of the conclusionrnto the revised edition of The ConservativernMovement with the qualifiedrnoptimism with which the first editionrnends: “Before giving in to anything likerndespair, conservatives in the 1980’s [andrn1990’s] might take considerable comfortrnfrom contemplating their forty-year risernto power.” While both the power andrnthe comfort are today diminished, stillrnconservatism in the 80’s did roll backrn(however temporarily) the welfare state;rnthat achievement, though insufficient,rnemphasizes the need for private and locallyrndevised solutions to domestic problemsrnand for a foreign policy based onrnconsiderations of a just national interest.rnConservatives did not require foundationrngrants the first time around, and wernwill not need them the second. ern••Ji-‘if’M^iJ’-:*’:’!;^’-;’rniECbTDnklf^srnc-‘I’iuidiianMitiilrnKss) Jj^tcrntlrniiiifefe-‘rn’:at)ajtn«yrnr.j^eaShrn->• >-. jj~-Erâ„¢->®ffeaHJTO jMiicMaine.rns!i’^’f’•’•>:^^^^•^^-r•-‘-•’.” ‘ • ‘ . ‘ : – ‘ •rn• ‘ -“-“•” ” ” – ‘ l – j i j . ^ : • ” • – •”rn^^^^^^^•^-.r^j^-^-rnms9 m: mfm^rnm^^i^^rn• -; x};)^^i£kMj^vloo.Cive a’ vm^smiSrn:-.::^i.••••x’^<;:i:’:y:• – • . . ‘ ‘ – – • • • . .rnGIFTFOR(l)rnI ADDRESSrnIrnIrnIrn1rn} CITYrn1 <rnGIFT FOR (2)rnFOREIGN ORDERS ADD $5 PER SUBSCRIPTION. U.S. FUNDS ONLY. CHRONICLES SELLS FOR $2.50 A COPYrnSEND TO: CHRONICLES » P.O. BOX 800 * MT MORRIS, IL 610.54rn38/CHRONICLESrnrnrn