We also talked about the tension betweenrnthe Tartars and the Russians (notrnthe Ukrainians). In the early 1990’s,rnRussian officials would incite the “citizens”rnto tear down the Tartar tents orrnhalf-built houses. There are currentlyrnphysical encounters between the criminalrngangs who control the open-air marketsrnand the Tartar merchants. Therngangs try to shake them down and thernTartars will not go along. A taxi driver inrnTheodosia on the coast told me he andrnhis cab had to work two days a month forrna gang. At one market, the Russians attackedrnthe Tartars, and soon thereafterrnone of the gang’s restaurants was burnedrnout. I asked Mr. Jemilev if the tensionrnwas increasing, and he said it only seemsrncalmer now. This conversation tookrnplace before the recent Russian elections.rnThe results of those elections,rnwith the Communists and Nationalistsrncoming out ahead, are probably notrncomforting to the Tartars. As the Tartarsrnsay, they can only depend on themselves.rnThe gangs have put out the word thatrnfive Tartar politicians will be killed.rnJemilev laughed as he said he was hurtrnthat his name was not among the five.rnProbably a mistake. This is a man, as Irnwas to discover later, who knew all aboutrnintimidation and persecution. The Russiansrnhad imprisoned him for a total ofrn15 years for his human rights activities.rnHis mother had carried him in her armsrnas the family was loaded into cattle carsrnduring the deportation of 1944. He wasrn16 months old. She and the four youngrnchildren were now officially “traitors.”rnThe reason his father was not thenrnlabeled a traitor was because he was atrnthe front in the Red Army. At war’s end,rnwhen he was discharged, then he becamerna “traitor” and was sent to Uzbekistan.rnFrom his teens Jemilev tried to reconstructrnthe history of his people, whichrnhad been obliterated because of “anti-rnSoviet” activit). Corrupt Soviet historiansrnhad rewritten the story to suit theirrnpolitical aims, much in the way corruptrnAmerican historians are doing now inrn”revising” our high school texts. Jemile’rnpursued his research between and sometimesrnduring his various imprisonments,rnand it is his restoration of Crimean Tartarrnhistory that has made him the leader andrnspokesman for his people.rnLater in the day my energetic interpreterrnand I hiked the couple of milesrnto the Uspenskv (Dormition) CavernMonastery, which dates from the eighthrncentury. One climbs steps to the sanctuary,rnwhich was cut out of the rock ofrna cliff. Then we continued to the oldrnfortress of Chufut-Kale. After the Turksrnhad sacked the fortress, the Karaim Jewishrnsect moved in and stayed, probablyrnuntil the 19th century. The Karaim hadrnbroken with mainstream Judaism aroundrn1000 A.D., and gradually some of themrncame to the Crimea. Now the fortressrnand the eaves are once again abandoned.rnThe Crimea and all of the landsrnaround the Black Sea are freighted withrnlong history and archaeological remains.rnIf bureaucratic barriers to the tourist situationrnare ever removed, meaning ofrncourse placing tourism under privaternownership, which is all that ever worksrnwell, everyone will benefit, both thernCrimeans and the tourists. But the oldrnSoviet wa’ is still in place in the Ukrainernand thus in the Crimea, and unless yournare invited by someone in the countryrnand he seeks out a visa for you from thernInterior Ministry, one must prepay forrnIntourist hotels that one has never seenrnand thereby establish an itinerary, thenrnpresent the receipt to a consulate for arnvisa.rnThe history and prehistory drew mernhere in the first place. High above myrnhotel in Simferopol was a ScythianrnNeapolis dating from the third centuryrnB.C. Seventy burial sites of Scythianrnnoblemen have been unearthed.rnI was interested in seeing Theodosiarn(Kaffa) and Sudak, where Greeks, Genoese,rnand Ottomans have held power.rnCars are easily hired, but as my intrepidrninterpreter demonstrated to me, if Irnasked the price it would be $100 onernway—if she asked it might be $25. I followedrnher instructions: “Don’t say onernword in English.” (Incidentally, thernTurkish visas for Americans are twice therncost of what they are for others.) InrnTheodosia, I did not see any Greek remains,rnbut the Genoese fortress wasrnmuch in evidence. As one traels aboutrnthe Black Sea, whether in Turkey, Georgia,rnor the Crimea, one is struck with awernat the energy that once drove businessmenrnto found the emporia, in the case ofrnthe Greeks, and these fortresses in therncase of the Genoese. On my way home Irnstopped off in Genoa, just to get near thernformer heart of this merchant empire,rnvisiting the Casa di San Giorgio (thernHouse or Bank of St. George), which lentrnmoney to governments and merchantsrnand ended up with property in the BlackrnSea, and also visiting the homes of greatrnmerchants and benefactors like AndrearnDoria.rnSudak is not as glitzy as Yalta, but thernbeach and mountains are as beautifulrnand the Genoan fortress much largerrnthan that of Theodosia, and in better repair.rnAt the Hotel Horizon, I had an authenticrnsocialist dining experience. Onernhad to pay for three meals v’ith the room.rnI was assigned Table # 1 with some otherrnpeople, but they were wise enough not torncome at the mandator)- 8:00 A.M. breakfast.rnAt 8:00 there was no sign of breakfast,rnand no waitress to be seen. In eachrnplate was a piece of raw bell pepper, twornslices of raw cucumber, cabbage cut likernslaw with no dressing, and half a hardboiledrnegg. In 15 minutes, the socialistrnwaitress traipses in dropping a spoon inrnevery glass of her 25 tables. Fi e minutesrnlater she drops one spoon of sugar. FinallyrnI get a piece of bread and decide tornleave. The other people arrive at 8:30,rnwhen a two-inch square of tough scrambledrneggs is dished out. I decide to leavernagain, and then for the piece de resistance,rnthe tea appears. This was my firstrnand last meal at the Horizon.rnFor a culinary coda, I decided to catrnmy evening meal along the beach. In arnlittle outdoor restaurant covered with thernlight camouflage netting used to preventrnair attack I ordered the only availablernitem, which was kabob. At least here onerncould dine when one chose and therncrowd was very unregimented. As all thernkabobs for the restaurant were cooking,rnthe lights failed. In order for the cook tornsee what he was doing, someone broughtrnhis Mercedes up from the rear and therncooking was finished in the headlights.rnSince the kabob was mostly gristle, it wasrnjust as well eating in the dark. As soon asrnI finished, the lights came on again.rnBack in Simferopol one day, Helenrntook me to her Church of the Holy Trinity,rnwhich is the largest Russian Orthodoxrnchurch in Simferopol. There I metrnthe priest, Vasil)- Pavlov, who is in fact arnCrimean Greek. He said Greek and RussianrnOrthodox all worship together. FatherrnPavlov, who was perhaps 30, saidrnthat some ‘oung people are slowly comingrninto the church, and of course manyrnold people had remained believers underrnthe communists even though persecuted.rnHe noted that when the Apostle Andrewrnhad first visited the Crimea, hernfound 20 believers already here. Crimearnwas further important in the developmentrnof the Orthodox Church, sincernVladimir of Kievan Russia was baptizedrn46/CHRONICLESrnrnrn