was invited everywhere. We finally have adequate editionsnof her Tribune articles in Larry K. Reynolds and Susan BelasconSmith’s “These Sad But Glorious Days”: Dispatches from Europen(Yale, 1991), and her letters up to 1849 in five volumes bynRobert N. Hudspeth (Cornell, 1983-88). Both sources tellnus of her meetings with Thomas Carlyle. She expected thensage of Sartor Resartus. She met a bitter, angry, though wittynman and his sad, frustrated wife. Carlyle expected a frigidnNew England schoolmarm and discovered instead a culturednand brilliant conversationalist who knew German as well as hendid. He soon tired of the wealthy Quakers who were serving asnher chaperones. They would go on about slavery, while henwanted to talk about masters and heroes. During their debates,nMargaret was meeting Giuseppe Mazzini, intellectualnleader of the fight for a united republican Italy. Many reportsndescribe him as the most beautiful man in Europe.nDressed always in black in mourning for his country, he wasnvowed to celibacy until Italy was free. The early chapters of hisnmasterpiece. The Duties of Man, began by addressing Italiannworkingmen with the words, “I have come to speak to you ofnyour duties,” and only then of their rights. Margaret warmednto him immediately. When years later Mazzini finished Dutiesnof Man, he declared the emancipation of woman as importantnas that of the working class, perhaps under Margaret’sninfluence. Neither could foresee that they were soon to meetnagain, in Rome.nMargaret went on to Paris and met George Sand, whosenlatest lover, Frederic Chopin, was lurking about the house.nSand appears to have been an important influence on Margaret’snradicalism. The experience was somewhat spoiled bynMargaret’s inability to converse in Erench with the flair shenshowed in English and the depressing rainy weather. So thenQuaker family and Margaret went on to Italy, first to Naplesnand then to Rome.nChesterton tells of a man who set sail to find a new countrynand after many adventures discovered that his new countrynwas England, his own home. Heureux qui comme Ulisse. Othersnhave ended up not in England or New England, but Rome.nSome of them spend the rest of their lives there, like Margaret’snnew friends, William Wetmore Story and his wife Evelyn.nStory, the son of distinguished jurist Joseph Story, had desertedna promising career in law to move to Rome and becomena sculptor. Others return to America, like the great sculptor ofnthe next generation, Augustus Saint Gaudens. After his returnnhe kept the faucets in his New York studio always running,nbecause the sound reminded him of the fountains of Rome.nThat is the country to which the orphans of the heart mustnturn, the land of their lost content, and Margaret Fuller wasnone of them.nWandering through St. Peter’s, she became separated fromnher Quaker chaperones. While searching for them, she metnGiovanni d’Ossoli. He was 25 and handsome as only youngnItalian men can be, shy and perhaps not very bright, certainlynnot well educated. Margaret was cultured and inarticulatenin five foreign languages. Together they found their way backnto her lodgings. For the next few days he showed her aroundnRome, after which it was time for Margaret and her chaperonesnto continue on to Milan and Venice. At Venice Margaretnparted company with her escorts and headed back south.nMargaret’s infatuation with Giovanni is enough reason fornmost biographers. They cannot understand what Rome meansnto a woman who grew up reading Vergil and Livy. There maynhave been another reason. Margaret was a born newspaperwoman—thatnHorace Greeley knew—and in Rome was thenstory of a lifetime.nIn 1846, only a year before, the aged Pontiff Gregory XVInhad passed away, after inspiring some of the most brilliantnanticlerical poetry ever penned, the sonnets of G. G. Belli,nwritten in Romanaccio, the dialect of Rome. All Europe knewnA Dog’s Life: “Nun fa mmai ggnente er Papa, eh? nun fanggnente?” (“Duh Pope he don’t do nuttin’? Whaddya mean,nhe don’t do nuttin’?” and so on to detail the leisurely schedulenof a modern Bishop of Rome). The Consistory voted for anyoung moderate, Giovanni Mastai, as Pope Pius IX. Pio Nononwas inspired by the Abbe Gioberti’s vision of an Italy cleansednfrom foreign domination and reunited under Papal Supremacynto enjoy her old cultural hegemony in Europe. Reformnwould proceed hand in hand with tradition and without thenneed of republicanism, revolution, or communism. The newnPope granted a constitution, allowed the formation of anGuardia civica (what we would call “a well-regulated militia”),nand even the appointment of lay ministers among hisnadvisors. Italy rang with the cry, “Viva Pio Nono!”nWilliam and Evelyn Story were amazed at the Margaretnthey saw in the fall of 1847. She was a changed woman, almostnbeautiful. They never even considered that there arenthings besides Rome and liberal politics that can produce anwoman’s rosy cheeks. The glorious fall became a rainy December.nMargaret grew depressed and the bloom faded fromnher cheeks. She awoke every morning feeling sick to her stomach.nGeorge Sand had neglected to mention this aspect of livingnlife to the full. Margaret Fuller was pregnant.nChesterton tells of a man who set sail tonfind a new country and after manynadventures discovered that his new countrynwas England, his own home. Heureux quincomme Ulisse. Others have ended up not innEngland or New England, but Rome.nMargaret had long since rejected traditional Christianity—nwho among her friends had not?—but part of her was still anPuritan. She was convinced that she was going to die in childbirth.nGiovanni proposed but she declined. It was not that shenwas too old to give him children. That objection was nownresolved. She was, however, as the Ossoli family still put it ancentury later, “old, ugly, Protestant, and poor.” Marriage to anProtestant required a Papal dispensation and his hostile oldernbrother, now head of the family, was not inclined to give hisnassent. In addition, Giovanni had joined the Guardia civica, anvirtual proclamation of republican sympathies and the Ossolinfamily blamed Margaret.nGiovanni did not share Margaret’s depression. He explainednthat under Italian law he could recognize his baby, give the boyn(as he was sure it would be) his name, and even baptize himnwithout marrying the mother. It is doubtful whether these legalndetails soothed Margaret’s anxious heart. She left Rome tonnnOCTOBER 1992/21n