show, then why are they holding back?nSocrates: Because we do not teachnthem about inequalities.nEuphron: Indeed we do not teachnthem that! We are bent on showingnthat equality must be our guiding principle,nand that inequality is to beneradicated at all levels. Is it not true thatnall citizens of Athens are equal?nSocrates: It certainly is. But are fivennot more than three?nEuphron: Five are more than three.nSocrates: Then that is an inequality. Isnit not also true that five are less thanneight?nEuphron: It certainly is.nSocrates: And can we then not say thatnwe know with certainty the magnitudenof five?nEuphron: We can.nSocrates: Thus by way of using thenconcept of inequality, recognizing thatnwhile we may not know much about annentity, we often know with certaintynthat it is more than one thing and lessnthan another.nEuphron: Quite so, but this is notnwhat the young have a problem with.nSocrates: I think that it is. But give menan example of where they failed in annexamination.nEuphron: They were asked, for example,nhow fast an eagle could fly. Theyninvariably could not answer that question.nSocrates: What did their teachers say?nEuphron: They praised the students,nfor they said that it is more honest tonadmit not knowing than it is to pretendnto know something you do not in factnknow. You yourself have admitted thatnyou know nothing!nSocrates: Quite so, but I will tell younthat in this case the teachers are eithernfools or crafty misleaders, and thusnshould not teach these students.nEuphron: Why is that so, Socrates?nSocrates: Because the teachers knownwith certainty how fast an eagle can fly.nEuphron: They say not.nSocrates: Even the most ignorantnamong them knows that the eagle cannfly faster than a snail can crawl and notnas fast as an arrow leaving the bow.nEuphron: Quite so. But is that notnsmall knowledge?nSocrates: Most assuredly. But is notnsmall knowledge, if it is certain, betternthan no knowledge at all?nEuphron: I am obliged to admit thatnyou are correct. However, I fail to seen54/CHRONICLESnhow any of this is of practical use.nSocrates: Well, would not some of thenboys who hear their teacher state thisninequality immediately say that theneagle also flies faster than a man cannwalk?nEuphron: Neariy all boys would saynthat.nSocrates: And is it thus not true thatnthe exactitude of knowledge has beennincreased?nEuphron: It is true.nSocrates: Consequently, if the boynwho reasons thus is asked how long itnmight take for an eagle to fly fromnSparta to Athens, he could say withncertainty that the eagle could do so innless than five days time.nEuphron: Certainly.nSocrates: And is this not better than tonacknowledge not knowing?nEuphron: To be sure. But for practicalnpurposes it is not enough.nSocrates: I fully agree with that observation.nHowever, we may well assumenthat the boy who recognizes that henknows some small thing with certainty,nwould pursue the subject and empiricallynor rationally, as we have done,nnarrow the limits of the inequality. Asnhe proceeds in this way, he will arrivenever more closely at the truth, whatevernit may be.nEuphron: Some boys would.nSocrates: Yes. And, given that thenteachers would dwell on inequalities,nmore boys would than given thatnteachers dwell instead on equalities.nEuphron: True.nSocrates: Moreover, does not thenmindless statement “I don’t know”nclose the door to anything but hopingnfor, and accepting when given, a professedncertainty? Such as the statementn”An eagle can fly to Sparta in fournhours?”nEuphron: I am beginning to see whatnyou are driving at. You are saying that anboy who has not been taught inequalitiesnwill think that he does not knownhow long it takes to move an armynfrom here to there, and thus despair ofnever becoming a general, because angeneral must know how long it takes tonmove an army from here to there.nSocrates: Exactly so.nEuphron: And, more generally, thenman who thinks he does not knownmany things which, in however small anway, he does know, becomes a lessnconstructive member of the agora.nnnSocrates: You are right.nEuphron: But surely not all mennshould want to become generals.nSocrates: Probably not. But we knownfor certain that not all men will becomengenerals because gifts of thenGods other than knowledge are requirednfor a man to achieve this honor.nSuppose that you wanted to suppressnin the young a striving for highernthings. What is it then that you wouldnteach these men?nEuphron: That facts about nature arenunknown, even approxiinately, andnthat only perfect knowledge, or perfection,nis permissible. We must teachnthem only about equality and we mustnteach them to fear even to talk aboutninequality.nSocrates: Yes. And what would you saynabout teachers who teach that to allntheir charges, and the public officialsnwho coerce them to adhei’e to thatndoctrine?nEuphron: I would know that they areneither ignorant (and thus should notnteach), or they are malevolent (andnthus should not teach).nSocrates: I will drink to that.nHalmuth Schaefer writes fromnCalifornia.n».».,nST.Tâ„¢.., 0, o««.â„¢Hj;;;;Mâ„¢,Nr .»„ cmc.L.,,0,.n,]31,1- L-i +n„, „„.„ ,..••..,., ,» -.h ,„„ ……. >…•.„, ,L .,…-…,n10/11/69n'”ZZZ’.^.Z’!.„,,………….,»»,»^,…….. »..,.,<… .ii.,-,„n„™. ,. „„,.,. â„¢. „..,.,. .«.«.,., .» …» ~>. ,.,…. .«<.,.. .L .”..-7..n^,..„.. ^ U „ , ,K. .U,.,.,. ,….,…. ,» »,.. ..,. 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