ment,” as K H. Ruppel commented. Thenconclusion shows signs of the “pantonal”nworld of composition, particularlynin the handling of orchestral texturesnand the use oi Sprechstimme, whichnSchoenberg had already begun to use.nThe quiet opening oiGurrelieder, a heritagenfrom Wagner and Bruckner, is ancharacteristic that appears frequentlynin Schoenberg’s pan-tonal/expressionistnand dodecaphonic music.nThe Five Pieces for Orchestra, despitenits pan-tonality—that is, “a synthesis of allntonalities”—contains sections of beautifuln”impressionistic” tone painting. Particularlynto be noted is the third section,n”Summer Morning,” which Schoenbergnadmitted was an attempt to musicallyndepict “sunlight on the water of LakenTraunsee.” This lovely music, still deridednby some, was given its first performancenat a “Prom” Concert—thenEdwardian equivalent of our “Pops”—nby Sir Henry Wood in 1912.nAs in Wagner, the Mono-Drama for sopranonand orchestra Ewartung blendsnrecitative and song in continuous melodynand depends on motival development.nThis pan-tonal one-act opera is an intensifiednversion of the Liebestod episodenfrom Tristan. Musically, the romanticnelement is most evident toward the endnin the horn solo and the evocation of thencoming of dawn. It was the coming ofndawn which betrayed Tristan and Isolde,njust as it betrays The Woman as she discoversnthe body of her dead lover. Innboth instances the coming of dawn isnthe harbinger of death.nIt is with his truly “twelve-tone” Musicnthat the most difficulties arise. If a Schoenbergianncomposition of this period is tonbe appreciated, it must be rememberednthat the “tone row” is merely a tool, likenthe C-major scale, with which to createnMusic; tinsit Music is the intended resultnof the use of either tool. Schoenberg saidnhe wrote “twelve-tone JWM«’C, not twelvetonenmusic.” Indifferent, pedantic, dullnmusic has been written in C major asnwell as by those who use the dodecaphonicnsystem.n44inChronicles of CulturenFor a great many individuals the musicncreated by Schoenberg during the lastnthird of his life is to be avoided as if itnwere some loathsome disease. They seenno beauty, merely harsh, barbaric noisendevoid of melody. But the singing melodynfor solo violin that begins the first movementnof the Violin Concerto is certainlynnot just noise. The concerto does havendifficult sections for the first-time listener,nas do many fine pieces of music. But onnrepeated hearings difficulties initiallynencountered disappear, and the logicnand beauty of the concerto become apparent.nIncidentally, Stravinsky considerednthis concerto the greatest writtennto date for the violin. Not a small complimentnconsidering the quality of thatncomposer’s own Violin Concerto.nNor is there any lack of melody in thenVariations for Orchestra The beautifulncrescendo-diminuendo dedicatory prefecenwith its B-A-C-H motive is followednby the introduction of the romanticntheme, long and lyrical and very simplynstated by the cellos, then taken over bynthe violins. The variations themselvesnrange from Germanic earthy, sometimesnsarcastic, humor to a waltz, alternatingnbetween use of full orchestra and smallnchamber-music combinations. After thisncomposition, which he considered tonbe one of the works that crystallized thentwelve-tone system, Schoenberg felt nonneed to restrict himself to that methodnin composing. He freely returned to writingntonal music, such as in the CellonConcerto, with its “Rule Brittania” firstnmovement, and the Suite in G for strings;nnnsometimes he combined tonal andndodecaphonic elements in the samenwork. Mention must be made of Schoenberg’snmany choral works that indicatenhis knowledge and love of Medievalnmusic. EsIstZuDumm (1934), if performednwithout comment, could bentaken as a work of the Swingle Singers.nHis return to music of a tonal naturenwas not a rejection of the dodecaphonicnsystem. Schoenberg had always consideredntonal music a valid means of expressionnfor a given work. In creatingnthe twelve-tone system he merely gavencomposers another option for expressingntheir musical ideas. When teaching,nSchoenberg intended “to give [his students]ninstructions in counterpoint, harmonynand chorale,” as Oscar Levantnwrote. Many of these students “werensorely disappointed when they discoverednthat… they would have to expendnconsiderable eflfort themselves” when allnthey wanted was a short course in learningn”a handfiil of Schoenberg’s tricks.”nSimilarly it requires “effort” whennfirst listening to the music of Schoenberg.nThis is also true of one’s first encountersnwith Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mahler.nIf an individual goes to a concert merelynto “sound bathe” and not to make use ofnthe mind, that individual will miss annenormous amount of beauty. So it is withnthe music of Schoenberg, whether ofnthe early Wagner-Bruckner-Mahler period,nthe pan-tonal compositions, the seveirelynserial music, or those works thatncombine dodecaphonic and tonal methods,nbut are always Music written in thentradition of Austro-German classicalnRomanticism. One who is willing to expendnsome effort on Schoenberg will benrewarded with a world of beauty hithertonunknown. Dn