skeptical about parapsychology. But itnwill take more than doubts about Tarotncards and ESP to turn psychology intona science. If there is a unifying principle,nit is probably the blank slate. Butneven that little would be vigorouslyndisputed by cognitive psychologistsnwhose experiments seem to indicatenthat the mind works only in some waysnand not in others; ethologists whosenstudy of behavior is increasingly inclinedntowards evolutionary biology;nand, of course, orthodox Freudians.nAt one time, Freud provided a centralnorthodoxy to the field. His name isnstill reverenced by PT contributors fornhis pioneering assault upon an “objectivistic,nalienated, market-place culture”nand for his bold unmasking ofnthe sexual impulses hidden behindn”Victorian prudishness.” But Freud’sndefinition of the sex drive as a primalncompulsion, sublimated in culturenand in the superego, put too manynconstraints upon human nature for thenfree-spirited psychologists at PT. Inn1969, Rollo May protested in PTnagainst “the complete determinism fornwhich Freud argued.” May also rejectedn”Freud’s pessimistic death wish,”ncalled into question “Freud’s use ofnscience as a monastery,” and dismissednsublimation as “Freud’s most puritanicalnbelief” Orthodox Freudian psychoanalysisn”plays into modern man’sntendency to surrender his autonomy”nand leaves too little room for “imagination,”n”intentionality,” and “interpersonalnmeaning.” “It rests on thenindividual to choose the values of sexualnexperience,” May believed, andnpsychoanalysis “can never carry thenburden for value decisions that changena person’s life.”nOrthodox Freudians are not the onlynpsychologists under attack in PT fornpositing a limited human nature. Inn1969 PT blasted Arthur Jensen fornpromulgating “socially dangerousnideas” with his research suggesting anlink between IQ and heredity. Just lastnyear, PT branded supporters of an”constitutional-organic” explanationnof mental illness as “conservatives”nand issued a bull of excommunication.nIn 1973, PT reduced the findingsnof neuropsychology to the single conclusionnthat “human beings are varied,ncomplex, and poorly understood.”nPsychologists who profess belief in “innate”npatterns of thinking and speak­ning—including some cognitive psychologists—arencategorized as “nativists”nin another piece the same yearnand are scolded for failing to understandnthat what they call “innate” isnreally just “easily learned.” (Walkingnon your feet isn’t innate—just easiernto learn than the alternatives.)nOf course, because many environmentalninfluences try to assign limitsn—legal, social, moral—to human behavior,nsilencing the “nativist” psychologistsnis not enough. PT’s editorsnand contributors can hardly restrainntheir rage against a society which takesnthe pristine blank slate of the individiial,nbreaks off huge chunks, then writesninhibiting messages on what’s left. Innan altogether typical article in 1973,nPT ridiculed the “simplistic ‘law andnorder’ view that social conflicts arencaused by deviant individuals who arenunable to ‘fit in.'” Criminal behaviornis only a “countercultural” protest.nOne regular reader drew the obviousnconclusion in a 1969 letter: PerrynSmith (the brutal murderer depicted innIn Cold Blood) committed his crimesnThree Outstanding New BooksnTHE RATZINGER REPORTnAn Exclusive Interview On the State of the ChurchnJoseph Cardinal Ratzinger with Vittorio MessorinIn this controversial, highly publicized interview, Cardinal Ratzingernspeaks candidly and forcefully about the state of the Church in thenpost-Vatican II era. Ratzinger’s forthright, measured criticism ofncertain forms of liberation theology, and his removal of thenimprimatur from two widely read books in the U.S., are wellnknown. In this extensive, wide-ranging interview, Cardinal Ratzingernaddresses a variety of critical issues in the Church, making clearnwhat he thinks the problems are—and their solutions.n”It must be clearly stated that a real reform of the Churchnpresupposes an unequiocal turning away from the erroneousnpaths whose catastrophic consequences are already incontestable”.nSevfn soft-cover, $9.95 — Joseph Cardinal RatzingernA CHESTERTON ANTHOLOGYnEdited by P. J. KavanaghnG. K. Chesterton is one of the most widely quoted 20th centurynwriters. His influence has been enormous, and this volume spearheadsnthe great revival of interest in Chesterton’s works. Thisnsubstantial work shows the many sides of Chesterton’s mind. Wenare given a wide variety of highly readable and enjoyable selectionsnfrom his no^ els, essays, poetry, and apologetics. The best summarynof Chesterton available.n”This deserves to become the standard introduction tonChesterton.” —London Times Sewn hardcover, $19.95nCOLLECTED WORKS OF G. K. CHESTERTONnVol. I: Orthodoxy, Heretics, Blatchford ControversiesnThis first volume of Chesterton’s writings contains three of hisnmost influential and engaging works.n”Chesterton’s writings are so rich in good sense, in wit, and innplain, profound and cheerful truth that almost every page deservesna review to itself.”— The SpectatornSewn soft-cover, $12.95; Sewn Hardcover, $17.95nm.nRATZINGERnKKPIIKTnLJJn^N t-CI nSlt- INTtRVIPWnC.K. CHESTERTONnCOLLECTED WORKSn^ ^nClf^CX(liZJiS DRSSS ^•”‘ ‘*’^** ^^” Francisco, CA 94118nC’ ^„„,„c • •^,-^, r, AMOUNTnCOPIES TITLEnNamenStreetnCity State Zip RnPlease include $1.50 for postage and handling. (California residents please add 6’/2’7f sales tax.)nnnMARCH 1986 / 49n