Yankees” is an affectionate evoca”tionnof the original basis of American variety,nthe difference between the South andnNew England that goes back to the beginning,nand of the need for preserving it. InnVermont the quintessential Southernernfound relief from the pressure that surroundednhim in Tennessee and fromnsummers in the South. Place, belief,nweather, and history account for the differencenbetween Brother Jonathan of Vermontnand Cousin Roderick of Georgia.nEach man represents a distinctive versionnof American strength of character.nDavidson renders each archetype in temisnof the particulars of his way of living. Hendrew one portrait from a relative of hisnsometime colleague. Professor John DonaldnWade of Marshallville, Georgia; thenother, Brother Jonathan, is simply RobertnFrost’s old neighbor, Homer Noble, innwhose home the Davidsons were frequentnguests. These regional Americansn”are attacking Leviathan” by beingnthemselves, by living out of what is distinctivenand indigenous in their particularnheritage, without wishing to changentheir countrymen in another place fromnliving another way.nThe integrity of regional Americanncultures and what we must do tonpreserve them is the great theme ofnRegionalism and Nationalism in the UnitednStates. Davidson sees regional culturenas natural—^as something in contrast withnthe states and the federal government,nwhich are the handiwork of consciousndesign. Two-thirds of this volume isnmade up of essays treating the politicalneconomy of regionalism, the resistancenof social science to regional explanations,nregionalism in the arts, and the greatndiversity of the American scene. Othernchapters discuss the regional character ofnAmerican heroes, educational regionalism,nthe regionalism of American literature,nand the malevolent response ofnNew York to the nation’s cultural variety.nOne that I like well contrasts the explanationsnof American character providednby Frederick Jackson Turner and ArthurnMeier Schlesinger: the first a Westernnregionalist, devoted to understandingnAmerican particularity, and the othernan Eastem centralizer, interested in tellingnhis reader how we have moved toward lifenin a statist society not yet in being: annorm imagined. Another essay almost asngood, “The Two Old Wests,” gives balancednexpositions to the versions ofnAmerica that developed north and southnof the Ohio River and west of thenAppalachians after the achievement ofnAmerican independence in 1783. Lubbocknand Amarillo, Fargo and Omaha arenthe western edges of this vast domain.nHere men remember frontier, notnEurope. But they remember it in two distinctivenways. Davidson’s analysis of thendifference between the Old Northwestnand Old Southwest is masterfully done:non the one hand, “intensity of conviction,nfrankness of love or hate . . .nunwillingness to submit one’s integritynto abstract dictation or to taint it withneven the shadow of disloyalty to what onenholds dear,” even to the point of death;non the other, “much more optimism thannfatalism” and a refusal “to believe thatnobstacles cannot be overcome” or thatnmeasurable purposes cannot be achievedn”by an effort of the will.”nOne other large section of the bookndeals specifically with problems peculiarlynSouthern. Despite the sixty years andnmore since its contents were written,nit has remained undated. As Davidsonnmaintained in 1937, it is still true thatnSouthern liberals do not get what theynexpect out of their “victories,” that moderatenSouthern social thinkers are stillnused politically by those in power but arennot then called to serve in government,nthat Southem interests are habitually misrepresentednby the region’s spokesmennand leaders, and that Southern poetsnare well-advised to go their own way.nDevelopment Officer: Small, free-market organization in the South seeksna fundraiser with at least three years of experience; knowledge of deferredngiving a help. Must be articulate in writing and in person, and dedicatednto free-market conservatism. Letter, resume, and salary requirements tonBurton F. Blumert, Box 4091, Burlineame, CA 94011.n30/CHRONICLESnnnwithout seeking the approval of the literaryndictators of the Northeast. Indeed,nthe proportion of Davidson’s counterattacknthat seems as timely in 1992 as inn1938 is astonishing—and a melancholynreflection of the misfortune of his homelandn(and mine) during the interveningnyears.nThese comments on things Southern,nand several other components of thenbook, carry with them a prophetic air, ansense of ominous foreboding. Oneninstance of this wise anticipation occursnwhen Davidson writes in a concludingnessay of H.G. Wells’ The Shape of Thingsnto Come and the contrasting sentimentsnof “/E” (George William Russell), whondisliked the idea of a worid state as muchnas Wells admired it. Davidson in 1932nrealizes that the mad scheme of worldngovernment (despite the failure of thenLeague of Nations) is on the march: it isna further extension of the uniformitariannprinciple that he opposes within thenUnited States. As with the idea of an”Great Society organized under a single,ncomplex but strong and highly centralizednnational government,” once itsneffects are recognized for what they are,nhe expects to see the nation and thenworld filled with an angry reaction to suchnempty promises. Then, knowing oncenagain that “tme Federalism consists in thenright relation of region (or section) andnnation,” these restored Americans will benready to shout down “the subtlest andnmost dangerous foe of humanity, thentyranny that wears the mask of humanitarianism.”nRussell Kirk has done a genuine andnlasting favor for all who are, as Davidsonnpredicted, now prepared to learn fromnwhat is happening in Eastem Europe andnelsewhere, who realize how they mustntake sides with the breakup of polyglotnempires and artificial combinations. FornDavidson’s meditation qua polemic onnregional integrity and devotion to “ournown folks” is a fierce old book, one whichngives a rightful place to both “federation”nand “autonomy” but is uncompromisingnin its tenor—loving, sometimes angry,nand always incisive—4ike my mentor himself,nthe man who made it. For thosenwho knew him (and especially those whonwere his students) found in DonaldnDavidson a moral force unlike anythingnwe had discovered in other men, and annillustration of that primary and indispensablenloyalty to one’s own, to those fornwhose sake we must attack and destroynLeviathan. <5>n