vative, an old-time Jewish radical whonhas moved to the right both culturallynand politically. Once an admirer ofnZuckerman, Appel now accuses hisnformer protege of anti-Semitism andnchallenges him to do an Op-Ed piece onnbehalf of Israel. Zuckerman finds Appelnto be an insuflferable prig who is trying tonatone for his youthful rebellion withnsenile moral posturing. Unfortunately,nRoth Ms to develop the rich potential ofnthe Appel-Zuckerman feud. This failurenreflects a fundamental moral confusionnon Roth’s part. Although he is not readynto endorse neoconservatism himself,nRoth is careful to filter his criticism ofnAppel through the distorted lens ofnZuckerman’s animus. Because Zuckermannand his absurd medical fantasiesnprovide no alternative moral norm,nreaders are left with the sense that thenconsequences of art are not only unreckonednbut ultimately unfathomable.nBereft of experiences and observations,nthe realistic novelist can alwaysnturn to history for narrative resources.nTo do so, however, is to raise the questionnof why one would choose to write anhistorical novel as opposed to a straightforwardnhistorical discourse. The answernwould seem to be that a historicalnnovel is merely a version of the past,nwhereas more conventional historiesnmust maintain at least the illusion ofnobjectivity. Thus, a work of historicalnfiction is likely to say as much about thenperiod during which it is written asnabout the one in which it is set. This isncertainly true of Louis Auchincloss’s/a:#nLadyMasham.nOstensibly the memoir of a womannwho rises from obscure origins tonbecome a servant and confidante ofnQueen Anne, Auchincloss’s novel reflectsnmany of the concerns of presentdaynAmerica. In the character of hisnnarrator/protagonist Abigail Hill, Auchinclossngives us a witty and sensitivenmodern woman who—through thenmagic of fiction—is allowed to consortnwith the Duke of Marlborough, JonathannSwift, and Anne Stuart herself. There isneven something of an inchoate feministnsensibility in her description of the lot ofnwomen as depicted in Restorationncomedy. She tells us that “the female ofnthe species had two choices in the stagenworld of Congreve, both humiliating: tonyield at the altar and become, soonnenough, a betrayed spouse, or to yieldnwithout sanction of the altar and becomena whore.”nAs the friend and agent of Toriesnseeking to influence national policy,nAbigail helps to end a bloody Europeannwar. Auchincloss thus posits an ideologicalnconflict between Whig greed andnTory benevolence. The 18th-centurynliberalism of the Duke of Marlboroughnresults in international war and domesticnpoverty, while the noblesse oblige ofnSvdft, Harley, and St. John brings peacenand a genuine concern for the poor.nAuchincloss seems to be arguing for antraditionalist conservatism which is notndirectly wedded to laissez-faire capitalism.nThose who have followed thenrecent philosophical debates of the rightnwill recognize this as what George WiUncalls “conservatismproperly imderstood.”nAlthough Auchincloss lacks Roth’snmanic energy, he more than compen­nIn the Mailnsates with an elegant prose style andncoherent world view. The differencenbetween Roth and Auchincloss is thendifiierence between scatology and irony.nTo see that this is so, one need onlyncompare any of Zuckerman’s statementsnof sexual ennui with Abigail’s descriptionnof her husband Samuel Masham:n”His present indignation was as feignednas his erstwhile ardor; he had no passionsnat all, only a mild acquisitiveness.” Innstyle as well as setting. Exit LadynMasham seems of another age.nWhile one hesitates to draw sweepingnconclusions on the basis of only twonnovels, The Anatomy Lesson and ExitnLadyMasham do suggest some of thenproblems and prospects facing contemporarynAmerican realism. Philip Rothnseems to have gone stale because he hasnused up his ethnic roots and has no newninspiration to draw upon other than thenangst of the successful writer. By fashioningna historical narrative which can beninstructive for our time, Louis Auchinclossnhas found a limited solution to thenautobiographical dilemma Seen throughnthe perspective of time, the communalnpast is often more “real” than the personalnpresent, nnProblems in Administrative Reform edited by Robert Miewald and Michael Steinman;nNelson-Hall; Chicago. The subjects discussed are reforms at the national, state, and local levels.nAll in 15 essays.nBureaucratic Power in Society by Richard Chackerian and Gilbert AbcariaH; Nelson-nHall; Chic^o. Argues that the bureaucratic mind-set is beginning to invade the home.nForeign Policy Behavior ofCaribbean States: Guyana, Haiti, andjamaica by GeorgesnA. Fauriol; University Press of America/Center for Strategic and International Studies;nWashington, DC. This subject may seem marginal—until you consult the front page of annewspaper on practically any given day.nDrek Shlak byj. Inchardi; Sirius Books; Freeport, ME. Repeat the title several times, quickly.nA Happy Childhood by William Matthevps; Atlantic-Little, Brown; Boston. Any poetryncollection including “An Elegy for Bob Marley” can make for an unhappy reading.nA Bibliography of American Literature Translated into Romanian by Thomas A.nPerry; Philosophical Library; New York. The first American writer to make it was Ben Franklin,nin 1833. The text: Way to Wealth. Other fevorites: Andrew Carnegie’s/fow toMakeaFortune andnDale Carnegie’s The Way to Win Friends and Influence People. Makes one wonder about thenintersection of reading habits and reality in Romania.nnn^mmmm^nnAugust 1984n