culture bv vva of au;ilogy. There are dozens of anthropologicalrndefinitions, beginning with that of E. B. Tvlor, who introducedrnthe word from German. Reaching not quite at random,rnone might use Paul Bohannan’s lucid and elegantrnformula to illustrate this usage. Bohannan calls culture “arnsummary of behavioral phenomena” and later elaborates onrnthis theme: “Culture, as it is acquired with the growth of thernpersonality, becomes the medium of that personality. Yourncannot swim without water, and water is the medium of swimming;rnyou cannot paint a picture without paint, and paint becomesrnthe medium for expressing the message of the picture.rnThe difference between culture and personality is the samernas the difference between the medium and content of arnpicture.”rnThere is a wide gap bctvyeen culture as medium and culturernas art, but fundamentally Tylor and Arnold were attempting torndescribe, if not the same set, then at least overlapping sets ofrnphenomena. Both were influenced bv German usage, and inrnGerman Kultur is seen in its educational aspect. To understandrnthe root sense, however, one has to know Latin (as bothrnArnold and Tylor did) as well as German.rnLatin cultura derives from the verb colere, which means torntill or take care of a field or garden plot. Cultura is, therefore,rntillage, and in an extended sense it can refer to the carernand nurture of various things: fields (agriculture), grapes (viticulture),rnand bees (apiculture), hi English we still speak ofrnculturing peads or bacteria, but the more relevant and livelyrnderiative word is “cultivate.” One can cultivate a field or arntaste for good wine and good music.rnIf the root meaning of culture means something like thernfostering or nurturing of growth, what is it that is being grownrnin the medium of culture, either in the high art sense or in thernanthropological sense? Bohannan supplies the answer:rnhito e’ery culture and evcrv civilization, year after year,rnhordes of uncultured “badiarians” descend in the formrnof newborn babies, hi every society a major—indeed,rnan oerwhchiiiiig—amount of social energy must bernspent in making cultured creatures out of this humanrnplasm. . . . ‘I’lic habits that are acquired bv youngstersrnare part of the culture in accordance with which theyrnare brought up. hi one sense, the habits are the culture:rnif all the habits of all the people were changed, the culturernwould have changed.rnThe object of culture, its product, are human beings who havernacquired the habits that are necessary for life in their society.rnMore specifically, it is their character or (to use a more technical-rnsounding word) their personality that is formed by thernculture.rnSome aspects of human culture are, more or less, universal.rnHowever, family, law, religion, and art are abstract and genericrncategories, and the reality of human life is in the gritty details:rnthe bickering among a man’s two wives, the judge’s wigrnand the archaic language of the common law, the life-anddeathrnstruggles over communion in two kinds or whether onerncrosses oneself from left to right or right to left, hi the case ofrncharacter, too, there arc quasi-universals: the intemperancernthat leads to murder, theft, and incest, variously defined, isrnfrowned upon, while bravery in war and care for children arerngcneralh esteemed. But a brave man of Bohemia or Balirnmight be regarded as a coward in Montenegro or Texas, and arnfaithful Irish father who spends most evenings in the pubrnmight not receive high marks among English Methodists orrnAmerican Lutherans.rnOf the catalogue of virtues that occupies so much of Aristotle’srnEthica Nicomachea, some of them have a familiar ring inrnEnglish. Courage, truthfulness, and justice can fairly representrnwhat the Greek philosopher was trying to discuss, but it isrnharder in the case of megalopsychia, often translated as “pride”rnbut vithout any of the negative connotations. This virtue is arngreatness of soul, whose opposites are humility and unduernvanit. A modern Christian or post-Christian can conceive ofrna kind of pride that steers a course between Poo Bah and UriahrnHeep, but it is hard even to grapple w itli the classic Greekrnvirtue, sophrosyne (temperance, self-control), for which wernlack not only the specific w ord but even the general languagernand context for a discussion.rnCulture, in general, produces character, in general, as wellrnas those universal traits of human nature, but it is specificrncultures that form the habits (whose plural is character) ofrnmen and women in real societies and give rise to concreternand historically bound conceptions of right and wrong.rnChange the habits, says the anthropologist, and vou havernchanged the culture; but, says the political reformer, changernthe culture and you change the habits and character of thernpeople.rnOf the various institutions of culture, none is more powerfulrnthan religion. By its rituals and according to its rules, the primaryrnstages of life are marked: birth, coming of age, marriage,rnand death. It is through religion that human beings are joinedrnwith their ancestors and their unborn descendants in a communionrnthat is the largest comniuiiity, and it is through thernrites and practices of religion that the dreadful powers of thernuniverse can be pleased, appeased, propitiated. To the pious,rna sentence of excommunication or a religious curse, because itrnreaches bc()nd the grave, holds terrors more fearful thanrndeath. The law can take away property and liberty, e’en life,rnbut churches (or the priests or the gods themselves) have thernpower of binding and loosing souls.rnChristian churches still play an important role in formingrnthe character not just of “Christian America” but also of paganrnEurope, where a great many practicing nonbelicvers grow uprnhearing the stories and taking part in the major festivals. De-rnChristianizcd Europe is still a province, although much dilapidated,rnof Christendom. The PYcnch film Cousin, Cousinernpays a cynical, backhanded compliment to the power ofrnCatholic culture bv portraying a Parisian family that spendsrnChristmas Eve watching midnight Mass on television, whilernthe cousins are betraying their spouses in the back bedroom.rnI do not wish to minimize the importance of formal indoctrination,rnbut catechism classes provide nothing more than arnshorthand sunimar’ of what the child is imbibing from otherrnsources: from sermons, from conversations with parents andrnother church members, and from learning and internalizing thernmagic words of creed and prayer. In most Christian societies,rnthe arts of painting, music, and poetry were enlisted into thernservice of the church. Frescoes and stained glass windows tellrnthe great stories for those who do not read, and sacred hymnsrnuse verse and music to convey a message more powerfullyrnthan any sernion or list of questions. The liistor- of the churclirncan be traced in the hymns of Venantius Eortunatus, MartinrnLuther, and the Weslevs, and the first serious music written inrn14/CHRONICLESrnrnrn