Sammy Davis, Jr., Dorothy Dandridge,rnDiahann Carrol, Lorraine Hansberry, orrnEartha Kitt, who were all married tornwhites. The paper warned: “A chief trickrnof Communists is dangling their whiternwomen in our direction. Do us a favorrnand keep your women in your beds andrnstay out of ours, and our neighborhoodsrnand homes.”rnClearly, the NOI opposed integrationrnin the early 1960’s. Thus MuhammadrnSpeaks quoted Minister Malcolm X:rn”The anemic Negro leadership that isrnwilling to settle for TOKEN integrationrninstead of complete separation [emphasisrnmine], is only asking for continued slavery…rnand these Uncle Tom Negroes dornnot represent the true sentiments or feelingsrnof the masses of our oppressed people.”rnOne of the Howard University studentsrnpictured in the paper asrn”spellbound” by Malcolm’s oratory wasrnan unidentified Stokely Carmichael, whornin 1966 would announce the close of therncivil rights era with his slogan “BlackrnPower.”rnEven integrated socials in the northrnsparked Muslim scorn. A January 1962rncartoon depicted whites developing rocketsrnand neutron bombs and Africans developingrntheir newly independent nations,rnbut in America, “The so-calledrnNegro is also ‘busy’ developing the ‘slop,’rnthe ‘roach,’ the ‘twist,’ the ‘horse,’ andrnother such obscenities from which thernwhite man reaps millions.” While therncartoon shows integrated couples twistingrnin the background, the white manrnrunning the dance says, “Say, Mary, remindrnme to set some of this [money]rnaside for my Israel bonds.” Anti-rnSemitism was not an uncommon featurernof cartoons in Muhammad Speaks.rnIn August 1963, during the hugernMarch on Washington for civil rights,rnMalcolm X was quite consistent when herndenounced the “Farce on Washington.”rnMuslims had meeting places in thernSouth in the early 60’s—Kingston,rnLynchburg, Miami, Nashville, New Orleans,rnOrangeburg, Pine Bluff, Tampa,rnetc.—^but unlike some black churches,rnthe Muslim centers did not nurture andrnhouse the civil rights movement. Indeed,rnwhen Malcolm X traveled South atrnthat time, it was not to protest segregation,rnbut to negotiate with the Ku KluxrnKlan on how best to thwart the civilrnrights movement. None of this appearedrnin Spike Lee’s film or in a recent PBS-TVrndocumentary on Malcolm.rnSome debate whether Minister Farrakhanrndescribed Adolf Hitler as simplyrn”great” or as “wickedly great,” but again,rnthe debate occurs in a vacuum. OnrnFebruary 25, 1962, the Nation of Islamrnheld its annual convention in Chicago’srnInternational Amphitheater, with 12,000rnin attendance. The featured speaker,rnElijah Muhammad, spoke on “ThernFuture of the American So-CalledrnNegroes.” Prior to his address, differingrnviews were presented by non-Muslims.rnDr. Audrey M. Mackel stressed, “I believernin the American way and thernNAACP,” and he recounted various legalrnvictories by that organization in thernstruggle for civil rights. Also addressingrnthe 12,000 was Commander GeorgernLincoln Rockwell of the American NazirnParty and Mr. Joseph Buharis of thernWhite Circle League. Buharis complainedrnthat Rockwell should wear anrnarmband with an American flag ratherrnthan a swastika. Otherwise, he generallyrnagreed with Rockwell. Rockwell, wearingrnhis swastika armband and Nazi uniform,rnspoke to the Muslim assembly.rnWith such diverse preliminaries, howrndid the leader of the NOI react? ElijahrnMuhammad began, “Dr. Mackel, whornjust left the microphone, offers you slavery.rn. . . And if Dr. Mackel and his kindrnwant us to bow and lick the boots ofrnwhite people instead of going for ourselves,rnthey are not fit even to be in thernsociety of black men. The White CirclernLeague is not a hypocrite. The GermanrnNazi [he undoubtedly meant Rockwell,rnthe American Nazi] [is] not [a] hypocrite.rnThey are telling you and me thatrnthey stand for white people! I’m tellingrnyou that I stand for black people!” Thernnewspaper printed some of the remarksrnby Dr. Mackel, a former member of thernboard of the NAACP, but here is howrnMuhammad Speaks introduced those remarks:rn”Dr. Mackel is another professionalrnwho seeks to destroy his people byrnintermixing although he makes his livingrnfrom 99 percent so-called Negro patients.”rnElijah Muhammad’s main attackrnwas not against the Nazis, butrnagainst a representative of the NAACP.rnOne article in an early MuhammadrnSpeaks was “Garvey Revisited,” in whichrnthe black Muslims rightly paid homagernto Marcus Garvey as a predecessor tornand hero of the Nation of Islam. Beforernthe establishment of the NOI, in thernI920’s Garvey led the Universal NegrornImprovement Association, which becamernAmerica’s largest black nationalistrnorganization. The UNI A created BlackrnCross Nurses, the African Legion, andrnthe Knights of the Nile and establishedrnthe Black Star Steamship Line. Thoughrnblack liberals and socialists like W.E.B.rnDuBois and A. Philip Randolph bitterlyrnopposed him, Garvey found other associatesrn—the leaders of the Ku Klux Klan.rnGarvey and the Kluxers met and shookrnhands in the 1920’s. Eventually, Garveyrnwas deported to Britain where he supportedrnthe Conservative Party and urgedrnit to transfer some of Britain’s Africanrncolonies to him. Garvey also admiredrnsome European leaders, like Mussolini.rnIndeed, Garvey reminded his followers,rn”We were the first fascists.”rnThe problem, therefore, is not a singlernspeech by Khallid Muhammad. Nor isrnthe problem a single individual, be hernKhallid Muhammad or Minister Farrakhan.rnThe problem is the idea. Lurkingrnbehind much of black nationalism isrnthe idea of fascism.rnThis explains much of the separatism,rnas well as the reaching out to the KKKrnand to the Nazis. It explains the anti-rnSemitism and anticommunism. It evenrnexplains why black nationalist professorsrnnow espouse black superiority. Andrnwhile all of these ideas can be expressedrncrudely, they can also be asserted withrnconsiderable intellectual vigor, as inrnHarold Cruse’s highly influential ThernCrisis of the Negro Intellectual (1967).rnThe crisis, according to Cruse, was thatrnNegroes had listened to and been dupedrnby Jews, especially Jewish communists.rnSubstitute “German people” and “Germans”rnfor “Negro people” and “Negroes,”rnand one might be reading Dr.rnGoebbels.rnIf black fascism is not new in America,rnthen, one, why are so few Americansrnaware of the history of black fascism and,rntwo, what is new about the role of blackrnfascism today? First, there has been arnconscious distortion of black history.rnThe left, sometimes with the officialrnsanction of government, has pretendedrnthat blacks cannot be racists. If blacksrncannot be racists, they certainly cannotrnbe fascists. So to support this ideologicalrnassertion, the history of black racist andrnblack fascist movements must be ignored,rnrevised, or refashioned and falsified.rnNumerous universities throughout thernnation currently support Black Studiesrndepartments. Why do they not discussrnthis history? What do they study? Thernstaffs of those departments prefer to remainrnsilent about links between blackrn44/CHRONICLESrnrnrn