The Bear and His Claws by William R. Hawkinsn”The wisdom of all these latter times, in princes’naffairs, is rather fine deliveries, and shiftings of dangersnand mischiefs when they are near, than solid andngrounded courses to keep them aloof “n—Sir Francis BaconnRichard F. Staar: USSR ForeignnPolicies After Detente; The HoovernInstitution Press; Stanford, CA.nJoseph Churba: The AmericannRetreat: The Reagan Foreign andnDefense Policy; Regnery Gateway;nChicago.nHenry Kissinger: Observations:nSelected Speeches and Essays,n1982-1984; Little, Brown; Boston.nNo matter where the finger roamsnon the map, the question inevitablynarises: What are the Russians tryingnto do here? Richard F. Staar, a SeniornFellow at The Hoover Institution andnan authority on Soviet communism,nseeks to assess the global intentionsnand strategies of the wodd’s most vigorouslynexpansionist regime. Some ofnthe subjects discussed are predictablen— the Kremlin’s world iew andndecision-making process; official attitudesntoward Eastern and Western Europe,nthe Middle East, the ThirdnWorld, East Asia, and the U.S. Butnwhat distinguishes Dr. Staar’s booknfrom others of its sort is the analysis ofnthe tools of Soviet influence: foreignnpropaganda, espionage and activenmeasures, foreign trade, and militarynstrategy. By drawing attention to thesentopics, Staar emphasizes his basicntheme, that the Soviet Union is notnjust another Great Power motivatednonly by Realpolitik, but is a powerndriven by a messianic ideology to advancen”social progress” in all parts ofnthe world. Though Marxist-Leninismnmay experience setbacks, its politicalnsuperiority over capitalism will eventuallyngive it victory. The West is in anstate of general crisis, the area undernthe control of “imperialism” is shrink-nWilliam Hawkins is research directornof The South Foundation.nIB I CHRONICLES OF CULTUREning while that of socialism is growing.nThe Soviet military is the most obviousnpolicy tool. It is a topic that Staarnis well-qualified to discuss as formernambassador to the Mutual and BalancednForce Reduction (MBFR) talksnin Vienna during 198I-I983, His tablesncomparing the strategic forces ofnthe U.S. and the USSR indicate thatnSo”iet doctrine is not based on thenAmerican doctrines of deterrence andnmutual destruction. The Soviets emphasizenthe successful prosecution ofnwar and the survival of communism innany clash with the West. In oldfashionednterms, this means they plannto win. Their nuclear forces are gearednnnto “counterforce” strikes against U.S.nand NATO military forces. The windownof vulnerability is still open, withnthe USSR able to “destroy any undefendednfixed target in the UnitednStates with a single warhead.” On thenground in Europe, the Red Army cannlaunch an offensive before K’ATO cannmobilize.nThe picture is not all black. Staarnbeliees that the Eastern Europeannarmies are unreliable and would addnlittie to the Soviet war effort except forna few elite units integrated into thenSoviet second echelon. Indeed, henexpresses the optimistic ‘iew that ifnNATO could ever fight its wa’ behindn